Today we are going to go all biological and understand how contraceptives work. For pregnancy to occur after sexual intercourse then the sperms must swim to the fallopian tube where it meets the ovum and viola fertilization occurs. Contraceptives are then designed to deter this process and it does this in three ways: blocking the sperm, disable sperm before they reach the uterus or suppress ovulation from occurring.
1. Blocking is the simplest way, more of how the condom works. It prevents the sperms from actually coming into contact with the vagina and then swimming up to the fallopian tube and fertilizing the ovum. There is also the diaphragm, cervical cup and sponge that are placed to prevent the sperms from entering the cervix. These methods are also referred to as barrier methods.
2. Disabling the sperm. This has the spermicide component that destroys the sperms. Usually this is introduced to the lady’s body is through an injection, lotion and even a small translucent film that can dissolve in the vagina.
3. Suppressing ovulation. If there is no ovum in the fallopian tube then there is nothing that the sperm can fertilize. The hormonal day to day pills, patch and also the depo shot release various combinations of synthetic progesterone and oestrogen which then prevents the ovum from being released from the ovary and making the sperms miss something to fertilize. Sometimes the combination of this synthetic progesterone and oestrogen increases the cervical mucus making it super hard for the sperm to swim through.
The question is whether one method works better than the other one. Most of the times when using these methods, the manufacturers will have notified you on the percentage of protection it can give you. For example how effective you can use the e-pill that we had discussed earlier. The male condom offers 98% if used effectively. However, the thing is not every person uses these methods effectively and therefore the percentage has decreased. Therefore whatever method you chose to use, please use it as effectively as advised to by your doctor or nurse.
As you choose which contraceptive to use also consider the side effects. Most of the side effects just affect women as opposed to men. Hormonal methods cause symptoms like nausea, headache, high blood pressure but these vary from woman to woman. Therefore for you to know which one works best for you kindly go to a doctor and get them to prescribe for you. Also note that some of these methods may work for you now and change later.
I think also that scientists should create more contraceptive methods for the men.
Hope this helps.